Once you save a call, its outcome can be logged, if the status is set as Answered. This can also be done from the Main Calls page > Completed section or from within the Cadence > Calls section.
However, to log the call outcome in your CRM, you would need to toggle on the Call created/updated trigger by heading to Settings > CRM > Triggers.
Now, let's see how the logged outcome looks like in various CRMs:
Note: For Salesforce, you would first need to enable a field called Call Result from your Salesforce settings.
For the same, head to Setup > Settings > Security > Field Accessibility > Task > View by Fields > Field = Call Result > Custom: Sales Profile > Editable > Check the box - Visible > Save. PFB a screenshot.